Why are we going to the Moon?


The Moon is the closest cosmic body at which space discovery can be attempted and documented. It is also a promising test bed to demonstrate technologies required for deep-space missions. Chandrayaan 2 attempts to foster a new age of discovery, increase our understanding of space, stimulate the advancement of technology, promote global alliances, and inspire a future generation of explorers and scientists.

What are the scientific objectives of Chandrayaan 2? Why explore the Lunar South Pole?

Moon provides the best linkage to Earth’s early history. It offers an undisturbed historical record of the inner Solar system environment. Though there are a few mature models, the origin of Moon still needs further explanations. Extensive mapping of lunar surface to study variations in lunar surface composition is essential to trace back the origin and evolution of the Moon. Evidence for water molecules discovered by Chandrayaan-1, requires further studies on the extent of water molecule distribution on the surface, below the surface and in the tenuous lunar exosphere to address the origin of water on Moon.

The lunar South Pole is especially interesting because of the lunar surface area here that remains in shadow is much larger than that at the North Pole. There is a possibility of the presence of water in permanently shadowed areas around it. In addition, South Pole region has craters that are cold traps and contain a fossil record of the early Solar System.

Chandrayaan-2 will attempt to soft land the lander –Vikram and rover- Pragyan in a high plain between two craters, Manzinus C and Simpelius N, at a latitude of about 70° south.


Supermassive black hole ‘V616 Monocerotis’ coming very close to Earth: Will Earth survive?

The closest black hole to the Earth is named ‘V616 Monocerotis’. It is also known as A0620-00. This black hole is 6.6 times more massive than our Sun. Will Earth survive?

In space, there are thousands of celestial bodies including asteroidsmeteorscometsblack holes and UFOs about which we don’t know much. It is worth mentioning here that the impact of these celestial bodies can harm the Earth and the whole galaxy. Talking specifically about black holes, it is a region of space-time exhibiting gravitational acceleration so strong that nothing—no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from it. In the space, black holes are one of the most complex entities. Apart from taking photographs, modern science is still unable to answer questions regarding these cosmic bodies.

There are hundreds of black holes that exist in the space and they all can be harmful for us. Now, the question is what if Earth gets trapped in a black hole? What will happen to humans? May be humans will extinct and also the Earth will come to its end.

However, you need not to worry as there are no black holes close enough to Earth that will directly affect us. The closest black hole to the Earth is named ‘V616 Monocerotis’. It is also known as A0620-00. This black hole is 6.6 times more massive than our Sun.

As it is mentioned above in the article that black holes are called that because the gravity in their centre is so strong, it pulls all nearby objects, light and other celestial bodies in. Nothing including the Earth can escape. Yes, you read it right. That’s how strong a black hole’s gravitational pull is. Well, it means that if you go near to black hole, you will be pulled in.

Newton Falls, Einstein Next?: Scientists Dismiss Newton’s Law Of Gravity While Studying Black Hole

  • After releasing the world’s first picture of a black hole, scientists have undertaken the most comprehensive test of general relativity near the blackhole at the center of our galaxy
  • This test has ruled out Newton’s law of gravity due to incapability to be applied in a black hole, as per Professor Andrea Ghez from the University of California
  • Detailing how Einstein’s theory cannot completely explain the gravity inside a black hole, scientists reveal impending disapproval of Einstein’s theory of general relativity


  • After releasing the world’s first picture of a black hole, scientists have undertaken the most comprehensive test of general relativity near the blackhole at the center of our galaxy
  • This test has ruled out Newton’s law of gravity due to incapability to be applied in a black hole, as per Professor Andrea Ghez from the University of California
  • Detailing how Einstein’s theory cannot completely explain the gravity inside a black hole, scientists reveal impending disapproval of Einstein’s theory of general relativity

The apple falling on Newton’s head which gave us the famous gravitational law has recently been disproved by scientist researching black holes, according to international news reports. After releasing the world’s first picture of a black hole, scientists have undertaken the most comprehensive test of general relativity near the aforementioned black hole.

This test has ruled out Newton’s law of gravity due to incapability to be applied in a black hole, as per Professor Andrea Ghez from the University of California. The scientist has also revealed impending disapproval of Einstein’s theory of general relativity.

“Einstein’s right, at least for now. We can absolutely rule out Newton’s law of gravity. While our observations are consistent with Einstein’s theory of general relativity, his theory is definitely showing vulnerability,” said Professor Ghez, in a press conference.

India’s Sun Mission: ISRO To Launch ‘Aditya – L1’ Space Probe To The Sun In 2020, After Successful Launch Of Chandrayaan-2

Detailing how Einstein’s theory cannot completely explain the gravity inside a black hole, the scientist added:

“It cannot fully explain gravity inside a black hole, and at some point, we will need to move beyond Einstein’s theory to a more comprehensive theory of gravity that explains what a black hole is.”

Studying a star S0-2 which orbits the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy, scientists have claimed that the particular star is the only one which makes a complete orbit in three dimensions which allow scientists to study the various laws of physics standing the test.

The star’s full orbit which takes 16 years around the black hole, which weighs four million times more than the Sun, allows scientists to conduct tests of general relativity, which has ultimately led to Newton’s theory’s downfall.

“The laws of physics, including gravity, should be valid everywhere in the universe,” said Ghez gravely, leading one to wonder which other physicist’s theory will bite the dust. 

Second Orbit Raising Manoeuvre Of Chandrayaan-2 Spacecraft Performed: ISRO

What is Newton’s gravitational law?

Newton’s law of universal gravitation states that every particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.

The equation for universal gravitation thus takes the form:

F= G * (m1*m2/r^(2))

where F is the gravitational force acting between two objects, m1 and m2 are the masses of the objects, r is the distance between the centers of their masses, and G is the gravitational constant.

What is Einstein’s theory of general relativity?

General relativity generalizes special relativity and refines Newton’s law of universal gravitation, providing a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time, or spacetime. The relation is specified by the Einstein field equations, a system of partial differential equations.

what is Phantom Vibration Syndrome??

i am very glad to share my experience with you people’s.

“phantom vibration syndrom” is basically our hallucination which occur’s due to keeping cellphone in vibration mode.

guy’s it really happens with me however i’m perfectly fit both physically & mentally. “phantom vibration syndrom” can be happen with anyone who is very close to cellphone’s.

whenever i play any music i felt that my phone is vibrating but it was my fake imagination. guy’s sometimes our brain senses vibration which is not exist literally this is called “phantom vibration syndrome”.

Nine of 10 people suffer from “phantom vibration syndrome” – where they mistakenly think their mobile phone is vibrating in their pocket – it has been claimed.

Dr Robert Rosenberger, philosopher and assistant professor at Georgia Institute of Technology, said the phenomenon was caused by “learned bodily habits.”

Research, published in the Computers in Human Behaviour journal, suggests that by person leaving a phone in their pocket it becomes “part of their body” in the same way that wearing glasses can, as it is easy to forget they are there.

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“People then perceive other sensations such as movement of clothing of muscle spasms as vibrations from your mobile, but it’s just a hallucination,” said the professor.

In an interview with the BBC, he said: “One recent study of undergraduates reports that 90 per cent of them say that they’ve experienced these phantom vibrations.”


The cause of phantom vibrations is not known.[9] Preliminary research suggests it is related to over-involvement with one’s cell phone.[9] Vibrations typically begin occurring after carrying a phone for between one month and one year.[9] It has been suggested that, when anticipating a phone call, the cerebral cortex may misinterpret other sensory input (such as muscle contractions, pressure from clothing, or music) as a phone vibration or ring tone.[9] This may be understood as a human signal detection issue, with potentially significant influences from psychological attributes.[14] Factors such as experiences, expectations, and psychological states influence the threshold for signal detection.[14] Some phantom vibration experiences may be a type of pareidolia and can therefore be examined as a psychological phenomenon influenced by individual variances in personality, condition, and context.[14] Attachment anxiety can also be seen as a predictor for the frequency of phantom vibration experiences since it is associated with psychological attributes related to insecurity in interpersonal relationships.


Little research has been done on treatment for phantom vibrations.[9] Carrying the cell phone in a different position reduces phantom vibrations for some people.[9] Other methods include turning off the vibration, changing the ringtone or vibration tone, or using a different device altogether.


Each hemoglobin protein can carry four molecules of oxygen, which are delivered throughout the body by red blood cells. Every one of the body’s billions of cells needs oxygen to repair and maintain itself.


Hemoglobin also plays a role in helping red blood cells obtain their disc-like shape, which helps them move easily through blood vessels.


Hemoglobin levels are measured by a blood test. Hemoglobin, or Hb, is usually expressed in grams per deciliter (g/dL) of blood. A low level of hemoglobin in the blood relates directly to a low level of oxygen.

In the United States, anemia is diagnosed if a blood test finds less than 13.5 g/dL in a man or less than 12 g/dL in a woman. In children, normal levels vary according to age.


High hemoglobin levels could be indicative of the rare blood disease, polycythemia. It causes the body to make too many red blood cells, causing the blood to be thicker than usual. This can lead to clots, heart attacks, and strokes. It is a serious lifelong condition that can be fatal if it is not treated.

High hemoglobin can also be caused by dehydration, smoking, or living at high altitudes, or it can be linked to other conditions, such as lung or heart disease.


Low hemoglobin levels usually indicate that a person has anemia. There are several kinds of anemia:

  • Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common type. This form of anemia occurs when a person does not have enough iron in their body, and it cannot make the hemoglobin it needs. Anemia is usually caused by blood loss, but can also be due to poor absorption of iron. This can happen, for example, when someone has had gastric bypass surgery.
  • Pregnancy-related anemia is a kind of iron-deficiency anemia, which occurs because pregnancy and childbirth require a significant amount of iron.
  • Vitamin-deficiency anemia happens when there are low levels of nutrients, such as vitamin B12or folic acid (also called folate), in the diet. These anemias change the shape of the red blood cells, which makes them less effective.
  • Aplastic anemia is a disorder where blood-forming stem cells in the bone marrow are attacked by the immune system, resulting in fewer red blood cells.
  • Hemolytic anemia can be the result of another condition, or it can be inherited. It occurs when the red blood cells are broken up in the bloodstream or the spleen.
  • Sickle cell anemia is an inherited condition where the hemoglobin protein is abnormal. It means the red blood cells are sickle-shaped and rigid which stops them flowing through small blood vessels.

Anemia can also be caused by other conditions, such as kidney disease and chemotherapy for cancer, which can also affect the body’s ability to make red blood cells.

Newborns have a temporary anemia when they are 6-8 weeks old. This occurs when they run out of the red blood cells they are born with but their bodies have not made new red blood cells. This condition will not affect the baby adversely unless they are sick for some other reason.

Babies can also have anemia from breaking down cells too quickly, which results in yellowing skin, a condition known as jaundice. This often occurs if the mother and baby have incompatible blood types.


Typical symptoms of low hemoglobin include:

  • weakness
  • shortness of breath
  • dizziness
  • fast, irregular heartbeat
  • pounding in the ears
  • headache
  • cold hands and feet
  • pale or yellow skin
  • chest pain

Risk factors

Older people or people who lack iron in their diets can be at risk of developing anemia.

People who do vigorous exercise are also at greater risk, as exertion can lead to a breakdown of red blood cells in the bloodstream. Women who are menstruating or pregnant may also be at increased risk of developing anemia.

People who have chronic health conditions, including autoimmune conditions, liver disease, thyroid disease and inflammatory bowel disease, may have lower hemoglobin levels, which increases the chances of developing anemia.

Hemoglobin levels increase in situations where a person needs more oxygen in their body. Consequently, someone who has lung or kidney disease, who smokes, or is dehydrated, may be at risk of increased hemoglobin levels.


While many types of anemia cannot be prevented, eating iron-rich foods, such as beef, dark green leafy vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts can prevent anemias caused by iron or vitamin deficiencies.

Meat and dairy are good sources of vitamin B12, and folic acid is found in citrus juices, legumes, and fortified cereals.

The American Society of Hematologyrecommend taking a daily multivitamin to help prevent nutritional anemias. Older adults, however, should not take iron supplements for iron-deficiency anemia unless instructed to do so by their doctor.

Smoking cessation and drinking plenty of water can help avoid high hemoglobin levels.


Anemia treatment varies, depending on the cause of the condition. Changes in diet or dietary supplements can help people who have iron or vitamin deficiency anemias.

If the anemia is caused by another condition, treating the underlying disease will often alleviate the problem.

Medications and blood transfusions are among the treatment options for aplastic anemia, and antibiotics may be used in the case of hemolytic anemia.

Polycythemia is a lifelong condition that has no cure but can be managed with medication.

Sickle cell disease is a life-limiting condition. The only cure available is a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Treatments are available, however, that reduce symptoms and enhance a person’s quality of life.


Not waves — the Internet. Too much of any light after the sun goes down can mess up your sleep, which is linked to diabetes, obesity, heart disease, and other health problems. And the “blue light” your smartphone gives off is especially bad.

Precautions for avoiding mobile problem’s.

What’s the problem?

Our challenge now is to work out how to manage the role of such devices within our lives, and so far many of us have not been very good at doing this.

We’re not just talking here about the obvious dangers to our health of getting distracted by the use of smartphones, even though this is a major concern in itself – for example, research by road safety charity Brake found that around half of drivers aged between 25 and 34 are taking huge risks by (illegally) texting, using apps or going online on their mobiles when they are behind the wheel.

The problems we’ll focus on here are the broader issues of how smartphones absorb our attention, occupy our head space and change our behaviour.

a. We crave stimulation

If you look around a train carriage, waiting room, airport or any other place where people are sitting without a specific purpose, you are likely to find most of them looking at their smartphones. Whether emailing, playing, watching or messaging, they will be absorbed in a screen, rather than embracing the opportunity for a pause in giving their attention to something.

As soon as there is a second where we are not occupied or stimulated by things in the ‘real world’ we seem to instantly reach for our smartphones. This may now be out of habit rather than anything else, but it may have originally emerged out of a fear of boredom or a need to be constantly entertained or stimulated. Either way, this seems unlikely to be good for us as we’re starting to crave constant stimulation in our lives – even if the stimulation has no value or real benefit to us whatsoever. To put it crudely, it’s as if we’re a group of mindless animals who are only happy when something sparkly is being waved in our faces.

By habitually seeking stimulation and distraction through our smartphones, we are missing out on the important opportunity to unplug ourselves from the world, give our brains a rest and actually have some peace and quiet. Sometimes it’s good to sit quietly, stare out of the window and, yes, even be bored for a bit.

b. We’re disconnected from the real world

Our absorption in smartphones can disengage us from the real world. This is part of a much broader issue surrounding the development of digital and virtual technology but it still stands as a concern, as the reality around us is the thing we actually need to live in and look after, and becoming too immersed in a world of distraction and fantasy could make us less concerned about valuing things in the real world – including our relationships, environment and direction of our own lives.

c. We’re taking our attention away from each other

This point is connected to the previous one but it is worth exploring further. Many people choose to engage with their smartphones rather than engaging with each other, even when they are face-to-face with them (for example, checking their phone in the middle of a conversation). In other words, the smartphone ‘trumps’ our attention above the people in front of us.

This might seem harmless enough if both parties are happy with that situation, but it can cause problems – first, it can exacerbate our habit of failing to pay proper attention to people or be involved in activities. Second, at the very least it shows a lack of respect for other people – an important value in building a civilised society.

Third, in a lot of cases at least one party is missing out on the other’s full attention and may be unhappy with it or this may be causing a problem. This may apply to a range of situations, including families, education, friendships and relationships. As the Deloitte report notes, “A third of all 18–24 year olds noted that their excessive use of smartphones had caused disagreements with their partners (see Figure 7). For 25–34 year olds the proportion was even higher, at 38 per cent.”

This is a particularly important point for us when we occupy certain roles, and the most obvious of these is as parents. If we are immersed in checking our smartphones rather than engaging with our children (which, anecdotal evidence suggests, happens a great deal), then are we at risk of neglecting their needs for encouragement and full attention, to help them develop into loved, confident, attentive adults?

Sprites of San Francisco: Anna’s Hummingbird — Discover

Sprites of San Francisco: Anna’s Hummingbird

From David at Incidental Naturalist: “The bird is beautiful at all times, but the blaze, that only shows when struck by sunlight at the perfect angle, takes it to a new level. . . . Add a few droplets of sun and magic occurs.”

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